“Group Portrait” of the Early Agricultural Era: A Set of Figurines of Vinča Culture from Stubline (Serbia) in the Context of the European Neolithic and Copper Age Societies

  • Илья Владимирович Палагута Санкт-Петербургская государственная художественно-промышленная академия им. А.Л.Штиглица https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2308-7586

Аннотация

Одно из плодотворных направлений в современном искусствознании — социальная история искусства. Интерпретировать памятники искусства дописьменных культур возможно через раскрытие взаимосвязей между социумом, особенностями его экологии и отражающими его образами. Европейские общества эпох неолита и энеолита (VII–III тыс. до н. э.) разнообразны по структуре: от иерархических до относительно однородных. Именно в эту эпоху войны становятся одним из способов производства, порождая соответствующие социальные институты. Изобразительные памятники, которые бы наглядно демонстрировали персонажей, относящихся к сфере войны, исключительно редки. Важное значение имеет находка набора статуэток на поселении культуры Винча D в Стублине (Сербия). Набор включает 43 глиняные фигурки, вместе с которыми найдены 7 моделей топоров и 2 миниатюрные булавы. Статуэтки образовывали группы из 10 — 6 — 6 — 6 — 3 — 3 — 3 персонажей. В центральной группе находилась одна статуэтка крупнее остальных (Crnobrnja 2011). Таким образом, перед нами изображение отряда вооруженных мужчин-воинов, объединенного вокруг лидера. Статуэтки изготовлены в виде конусов, что позволяет их расставлять на плоской поверхности. Этот набор уникален. Грубость изготовления фигурок указывает на то, что аналогичные наборы могли делаться для конкретного действия из необожженной глины или других нестойких материалов и в большинстве своем не сохранились. Отряд, состоящий из почти полусотни воинов, который изображала композиция из Стублине, мог представлять собой отдельную группу бойцов, возглавляемую военным вождем. Исходя из этнографических параллелей, аналогичные группы могли образовываться на основе системы возрастных классов. Вполне вероятно, что набор фигурок из Стублине играл какую-то роль в инициациях или служил для наглядной демонстрации места членов объединения в «тактической игре» (параллельно с распределением ролей, что не исключает того, что такая расстановка могла быть сделана в процессе культовой практики).

Ключевые слова:

интерпретация искусства, энеолит, культура Винча, антропоморфные статуэтки, система возрастных классов

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Биография автора

Илья Владимирович Палагута, Санкт-Петербургская государственная художественно-промышленная академия им. А.Л.Штиглица

доктор исторических наук, доцент, заведующий кафедрой искусствоведения факультета дизайна

Литература


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Опубликован
2018-12-11
Как цитировать
Палагута, И. В. (2018). “Group Portrait” of the Early Agricultural Era: A Set of Figurines of Vinča Culture from Stubline (Serbia) in the Context of the European Neolithic and Copper Age Societies. Вестник Санкт-Петербургского университета. Искусствоведение, 8(4), 626-645. https://doi.org/10.21638/spbu15.2018.406
Раздел
Изобразительное искусство